United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi and Dubai

United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi and Dubai

A Comparative Study: Emirates of Abu Dhabi

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It has often been recalled throughout history that it is said that the Phoenix will rise from the ashes if the saying has only predicted the Phoenix rising from the sands of the Desert then surely it would be proclaimed that the Phoenix was indeed the nation of the Arab Emirates. Dubai was a small fishing village in the 18th century and home to the Bani Yaw tribe however, history places civilization in this area during the first millennium BC. The museum in Dubai contains a collection that was excavated from Al-Quasais and another excavation yielded a caravan station that was from the sixth century AD in the expatriate suburb of Jumairah. The largest part of the Dubai emirate is comprised of sand dunes which were the home to nomadic Bedouin until about fifteen or twenty years ago. The nomadic individuals roamed throughout the area grazing their herds and flocks until they settled in villages in the fertile regions of valleys which are few in number. The desert borders the foothills of the Hajar Mountains toward the east which are said to have an arid climate.

Just twenty years ago Dubai was a small trading port. The nineteenth century witnessed growth in the village when the Bani Yas tribe, in the number of around 800 individuals settled in Dubai. By the first of the 20th century Dubai had begun to witness settlers coming from Baluchistan, Iran and India due to the fact that Dubai contained 350 shops and was gaining in prosperity by this time. Dubai was said to be a “natural haven” (History of Dubai Online) for those who left Lingah, on the Persian coast. The Indian population that had made Dubai their home were active merchants and the village gained a “cosmopolitan atmosphere as well as an air of tolerance” and this began to draw more foreigners to the region. During the 1930’s approximately one-fourth of the population were not native citizens or the amount of 20,000 member of the population plus, 2,000 Persians and 1,000 Baluchis.

The British established a political agency in Dubai during the year of 1954. The town of Dubai is know for its’ oil production however, prosperity began before the oil production in Dubai because of the lucrative trade in the region. The pearling industry began to die out in the 1930’s and 1940’s influenced by the competition of Japanese cultured pearl operations however, the mercantile businesses increased in the region due to trade with India and Persia following the 1939-45 war. There is only one town in Dubai that has any great import in substantiality in the region. The area of the emirate of Dubai is a 3,900 square kilometer area with an estimated 1990 population totaling 889,518. The description of the area is that of being “mainly desert, with sand dunes ranging from near white coast along the coast to a deep orange inland near the mountains, and in places dotted with a scrub of desert bushes and even some large trees.” (History of Dubai Online)

The largest development outside of Dubai is Jebel Ali which runs some 20 kilometers along the southwest coastline. Jebel Ali is an industrial complex in which the government has built a harbor, said to be the largest man-made harbor in the world. There is a gas separation plant as well as an aluminum smelter plant and approximately 300 residential dwellings in the village of Jebel Ali.


The changing economic climate has affected different impacts on the process of urban development in the United Arab Emirates cities. The objective of this paper is to research and assess urban development options through a case study of urban projects in Dubai and Abu Dhabi such as Palm Island in Dubai and Lulua Island in Abu Dhabi. The conceptual framework will be the regulation theory.

Findings of Importance:

The findings of importance in this study are that there has been drastic expansion taking place in the United Arab Emirates, particularly in Dubai and Abu Dhabi and that this expansion has been accredited to wise business acumen in the area of investing oil profits in developing the country focused toward tourism, industry and recreation.


Due to limitations of time the method of research will be limited to a review of available literature in relation to the above stated objective.

Abu Dhabi is located in the Arabian Gulf and is the largest of all the seven emirates. Abu Dhabi covers an area of 87430 square kilometers which is equal to 86.7% of the entire country not counting the island areas and is composed of three different regions. The first region is the city of. Abu Dhabi is the Emirate Capital with a population of 942463. Abu Dhabi is the headquarters for the president of the Emirate, the Cabinet, the majority of the ministries, federal institutions, foreign embassies, broadcasting stations, television stations, Zayed Port, Abu Dhabi Airport, the majority of the oil companies in the region as well as other establishments of business and markets.

The second region of Abu Dhabi is the region in the eastern portion of the overall region. The capital of this region is Al Ain city which is very fertile demonstrated by the richness of greenery, farms and public parks. Water is plentiful in this region in terms of ground water and artesian wells. Local landmarks are the Ain Al Fayda parks, Hafit Mountain, Heili leisure land, the Zoo and Al Ain Museum as well as the UAE University and Al Ain Airport.

The third region in Abu Dhabi is the Western Region. The capital city in this region is Zayed City which is the location of dense forest areas that cover an area that has approximately 20 million green trees.

Within this region are on-shore oil fields as well as the largest oil refinery in the country which is at Al Ruwais City. Inclusive in the region of Abu Dhabi are several Islands which are Das Island (the most important of the islands), Mubraz Island, Zirky Island, and Arzana Island. These islands are those comprising the main oil fields offshore. There are other islands which are Delma, Al Sadiyat and Abu El Abyaadh. One of the best health resorts is located at the foot of Jebel Hafit Mountain which has a hot mineral spring underneath with healing properties. Other attractions in the region are the Hili Gardens which is the site of ancient tombs, the Al Ain Museum, the Al Ain Zoo and Aquarium as well as the Qattarah Oasis which is a wooded area rich with history on the edge of Al Ain.

Today Abu Dhabi is a center for transportation and communication as well as for finance and is also a region which produces petroleum as well as the site of a deepwater harbor and international airport. The regions products include cement and steel pipe and the main thoroughfare through the region is a 7-kilometer or four mile long “Cornisch” or road which is a landscaped boulevard on the seafront. Abu Dhabi is inclusive of a research institute and such modernity’s as a large sports center. The city of Abu Dhabi sits on the edge of sparkling salt water and is a beautiful to the eye.

Literature Review:

According to a written work the UAE was a country in development which was a poor country as well prior to the decade of the 1960’s however two important events took place during the decade of the 1970’s that change all of that. Accordingly, the recently departed and dearly loved, H.H. Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahan, UAE’s president met with other ruling individuals in the region and founded the United Arab Emirates in the place of striking many deep reservoirs of oil. The UAE’s Leadership held an envisioned a spectacular futuristic country and thus propelled the primitively settled area into the future which has culminated into a civilized, developed area which draws tourists, provides education, healthcare and other such services in an excellent manner. Development is ongoing and a large part of that is due to practical investment in the development of the country.

Located in the country is the UAE Air Force Space Reconnaissance as well as the National Ground Station which was first established in the year 2000 with reception of the satellites “IKONOS, IRS, KOMPSAT imagery”

as well as with all data reception, processing analysis and production controlling nationals. The development in this area has been expedient in all areas of the lives in the region due to wise leaders who have steadily and repetitively launched plans with efforts that have benefited the people in the region both for the present and future. The president of Abu Dhabi has been president since 1971 and rules in conjunction with the other area rulers that form the Federation of the Seven Emirates forming the United Arab Emirates which propelled the development in the regions which has been witnessed over the past 20 years. From the 1950’s to the present time the towns and villages have developed from a land of small oasis to that of a modern city with full functions as in any modern city.

The infrastructure investment in this area comes to a total in excess of tens of billions of $U.S.. Housing construction has added 1000’s of villas, low income dwellings as well as land parcels provided as grants to nationals, residential dwellings as well with a high standard of modern community services. Development in agriculture cannot be missed due to an area in excess of 270000 hectares with more than 40 million standing palm trees and inclusive of vegetable and other crops and fruit crops. The highways are paved surfaces for more than the length of 4000 kilometers and are linked with service roads and highways into the larger cities. The United Arab Emirates is ranked among top countries in the Arab region and 21st worldwide. Alsuweidi (2004) Women compose 41% of the workforce in the education sector and 34% in the healthcare sector. The number of students in school in the 2002-02-year was reported at 556.500 compared to the 1962 total of 4000 and now meet in buildings instead of huts in the sand.

According to the work of Alhameli & Alshehhi (2004) the UAE is becoming on an international basis a:

“Regional and global trade & tourism hub and a center for important exhibitions such as International Defense (IDEX), IT (GITEX) & Dubai Air Show. UAE give $ U.S. 10’s millions of aid yearly to poor countries and has funded many projects in over 50 developing countries worth of $ U.S. 6.2 billions H.H. Sheikh Mohammad Bin Zayed Al Nahyan initiated the UGS project and it was operational in year 2000, with the help of Space Imaging, the leading world company in high resolution imaging satellites business.”

In the case study that was written and reported by Alhameli & Alshehhi (2004) which was accomplished through study of a collection of data, reports and imagery from satellites along with use of municipality maps that had been updated and other images. The study states that it involved the:

“Acquisition of historical Landsat MSS (1973) and TM images (1984, 1990 & 1995) and compilation of references on UAE development. Landsat MSS & TM bands 4, 3 & 2 false color composite (figures 2 & 3) and composite of TM bands 7, 4 & 2 parallel with recently acquired IKONOS images were used for vectorization of built up areas in Abu Dhabi & Dubai cities.”

The study further states that: “The Island is almost fully developed.” Alhameli & Alshehhi (2004) Recently the Lulu Island was established off Abu Dhabi to the west with plans for development being inclusive of “remarkable recreational and residential/commercial projects.” Alhameli & Alshehhi (2004) Areas along the Southwest coast and toward the East has experienced a large expansion. The focus in expansion is toward the areas of tourism, recreation and industry. The following chart labeled Chart l.0 represents the data analysis in this study:

Chart 1.0

Year / Image Type

Abu Dhabi


Area by Sq. Km.

Area by Sq. Km.

1951 Air Photo



1973 Landsat MSS

15 6 / yr

13 NA

1984 Landsat TM

82 6.2/yr

82 6.5/yr

1990 Landsat TM

128 7.4/yr

112 5 / yr

1995 Landsat TM

160 6.4/yr

128 13.75/yr


262 12.75/yr

238 13.75/yr

Chart utilizes data from Case Study

Reported by Alhameli & Alshehhi (2004)

The UAE at the federal and local levels in terms of infrastructure development has been a phenomenon as cities have sprung up in the dessert which are interconnected by new roadways and further linked to the world at large via airports and seaports of the most up-to-date available in technological terms.

The Ministry of Public Works and Housing has been very active in the development of the UAE’s infrastructure and has supervised many of the construction projects. For example the construction of mosques numbering 13 in all in Fujairah, 16 Sharjah mosques, the Umm Al-Qaiwain Hospital, Fujairah Hospital, Saif bin Ghubash Hospital in Ras al-Khaimah, the Ministry of Finance and Industry in Al Khubeira Palace in Abu Dhabi, the TV building and Abu Dhabi Radio Station and Healthcare Center in Umm al-Qaiwain as well as three healthcare centers in Dubai. Further he has supervised the construction of 27 school buildings, three kindergarten facilities as well as two mosques in Ajman that are being renovated and refurbished.. Finally there are 56 projects that are in the works and 80 other projects at the review stage. Since the inception of the housing committee the department has completed more than 6, 000 construction projects equaling Dh 26 billion. The following lists reflect the construction completed, planned for, under review and underway in Abu Dhabi

Abu Dhabi

‘Public Works”

– Construction Expenditures

Seaport and Excavation Projects:

Dh 1,150 million

Government buildings:

Dh 5,100 million

Airport Development:

Dh 70 million

Abu Dhabi Airport Lounge Renovation:

Dh 4 million

Modern road network:

Dh 11.477

Seaports Excavation works and land cultivation project:

Dh 96 million

Department Government Buildings and Colleges:

Dh 1,165

Current projects undertakings in Abu Dhabi:

Dh 8,687 million

Allocation for construction of road and bridges:

Dh 3,636 million

Allocation for airports:

Dh 66 million

Allocation for Seaports, excavation and cultivation:

Dh 1,054 million

Allocation for government building projects:

Dh 3,937 million

Abu Dhabi Municipality


– Construction Expenditures

1999 completed projects

Dh 112 million

Al Maqta Bridge

Dh 112 million

Abu Dhabi Corniche

Dh 200 million

Twenty-Seven other Projects totally

Dh 148 million

1998 (14) projects

Dh 938 million

Under construction

Dh 581 million


Dh 21, 344 million

Meanwhile in Dubai a recent news report states that “Statistics compiled by the DED suggest that the Emirate’s GDP rose historically by 16.7% in 2004 to touch almost AED 100 billion, as measured by current prices.” (AME Info News Online) The Dubai municipality has played a key role in transforming the emirate into a tourist center complete with modern efficiencies. The numbers of vehicles are expected to double by 2011 and this keeps traffic planning at the top of the list with plans for many new roads to be constructed even after so many having been completed. Stating that: “the phenomenal growth in 2004 is the result of several factors, including the ambitious initiatives launched by HH General Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Crown Prince of Dubai and UAE Defence Minister”; said the DED Director General continuing by stating that: “The Government of Dubai’s unlimited support for the private sector coupled with dramatic increase in local spending, the constant growth of non-oil sectors and the sustained high oil prices have all contributed to Dubai achieving record growth rates.” Playing a key role in the 2004 growth are the expansion and development in the non-oil sectors of the industry with a 17% growth in the non-oil sectors.

There is a reported “continuous inflow of foreign capital” according to Mr. Alabbar who stated that “a trend that is expected to be maintained with the prevailing lucrative return on investment in key sectors.”

The initiatives launched by the government in coordination with the large corporations and companies in the Emirate have assisted the local and international interest rates in finding stabilization at low levels of rates which has given encouragement to private investors as well as offering a broad range of choice in the investment community at large. Economic indicators, according to the UAE Interact News report, “showed a quantum leap in the construction sector for the third year.” (UAE Interact News 2005)

Urban Progress: Construction in Process

In a recent news report entitled “Abu Dhabi plans Emirates Pearl” sated is that a “massive residential and tourist city called Emirates Pearl will be built at a cost of DH35 billion on an island belonging to Abu Dhabi under an agreement signed between the government of the emirate and a consortium of three companies.” (Arab News Archive 12 Dec 2004)

The report states that the “Emirates Pearl” will sit upon five million square meters of land on Al Sho’oom Island which is located northeast of Dhabi. Companies in the consortium are Malaysia company BBM, Al Ain based Al Rayan Investment and Abu Dhabi-based National Company for Property Investment. The Emirates Pearl will be inclusive of “luxury hotels, hospitals, and university and family entertainment facilities within a modern city managed by the latest technologies … ” (Arab News Archive 12 Dec 2004) Lastly, the report revealed the fact that Abu Dhabi City will connect with the island via a bridge. The project will move the industry forward a giant step in the area of “highly developed residential projects, business centres, tourist resorts and family entertainment at the regional and international levels and would add a new dimension to the concept of the 21st century, according to BMM. (The Emirates News Agency)

In a December 12, 2004 News Report entitled “Arabtec to build villas in Silicon Oasis Complex” reported is that the Dubai Company Silicon Oasis has joined in a contract with Arabtec to construct 560 residential villas within the complex or the southern part of the 700 hectare project located in Nad Al Sheba areas of Dubai. The complex is expected to be finished sometime during the first six months of 2006. Included are recreation facilities, entertainment amenities, including a club house and a state-of-the-art gymnasium, swimming pool, mini-shopping center and a children’s playground.

In a separate report entitled “Plan for the Next Phase of Festival City Ready by Mid-2003” the plan for Phase II of the Dubai Festival City project. According to the director of leasing and marketing for the Dubai Festival City “When this project was launched, we never envisaged such an outpouring of interest in residential units.” (UAE Interact News 2004)

The focus on Phase II of the project is the “topping of the residential elements within the development, as well as adding features to works executed during Phase I.” (Ibid) The units which are residential dwellings are available with either a one or two-year lease. There will be an approximate number of 19,000 units with 77,000 individuals estimated that will be expected to live as well as work at Dubai Festival City. Featured in Phase II of the development is 1.1 million square feet of retail, entertainment and hospitality business in a waterfront center. There also will be a 175,000 square foot facility located at the Retail Park. At the time of this report more than 80% of the available 750,000 square feet of space that will be leased at the Retail Park has already been leased. (UAE Interact News Online 2004) Dubai Festival City covers an area of 1,600 acres and is split into 15 zones. Inclusive in Dubai Festival City are hotels, an 18-hole golf course with the Four Seasons having signed up on the first resort project in history in the Middle-East.

A report entitled “Technology Theme Park to be Ready by May” stated that the first technology themed “theme park” to exist in the Gulf will most likely be ready to open by May 2005 since nearly 75% of the work is finished at the Dh200 million park. Featured in the park is a 3-D Cinema. The park is being built on a stated 47 hectare spot with financing coming from private and public sectors. Reportedly Dh300 million is being spent by the municipality attracting another Dh300 million in investments from private sources. Situated on three plots right between the Trade Center, Karama and Zabeel Road, Zabeel Park will have interactive exhibits or the alternative energy zone as well as a lake a cascading stream with pedal and rowing boats for rent.

A “Bridge Over Quiet Waters … ” is the title of the report which sates that connecting the sea and the beach area of the Sheraton Hotel in Abu Dhabi will be accomplished by the bridge being built over the channel. Situated on the new road leading from Port Zayad the bridge is nearly complete and will give relief to the overwhelming heavy traffic. The bridge is reportedly part of the Cornice Project in Abu Dhabi which is funded for Dh750 million. (UAE Interact News Online)

Dubai Mountain City is the project of Al Hashemi and Dubai’s Al Salem groups which is a Dh12.25 billion project which is destined to be a tourist destination. The structure which is shaped like a mountain has been designed by architects from German Wolf and Partner with half of the structure “rising from the sea” and standing 300 meters high and a width of 650 meter. This structure will be only part of a larger complex planned for. The tower will consist of residential units, villas, gardens, 1,000 apartments, hotels, 150,000 meter shopping mall, a five-screen cinemal complex, restaurants and underground parking for 12,000 cars. Construction is set to begin next year on this project which was reported in July 2004.

The park in Mubazzarah has been turned into a recreation center with a “lush green environment” as well as new lodgings, shops and restaurants. Green Mubazzarah is located in the foothills of Jebel Hafeet and was one of the department Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan’s personally monitored projects. Working around the clock on the facilities construct workers have build covered swimming pools for both genders as well as a hot spa complete with landscape and greenery. Many new chalets have been part of the new construction for visitor use.

In a November 11, 2004 news report entitled “Development Tops Ministry Agency, Says Hamdan” stated is that the main goals of the ministry are development and success. Sheikh Hamdan Bin Hubarak Al Nahyan is stated to have said that:

“Our ministry is one of the most important in the country because it offers services to a large number of people .we need with us only hard-working people who care about the development of the country. Those who do not care will have no place among us .because all of our projects are important to me, I will establish a project following office and there will be ministry offices in each emirates — a map for each project to be updated. There will be no excuses for delaying work ….we will start step-by-step and be faithful to achieve our goals.”

Entitled “Abu Dhabi Emirate is Witnessing Ongoing Improvements” this work states that ongoing improvements are being witnessed in the areas of constructing of modern highways, road, bridges and underpasses which are for the express purpose of providing relief to the areas of high traffic congestion and to make the flow of traffic more expedient and efficient. The infrastructure of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi was mentioned in this news report as well as plans for new construction of towns and housing complexes. The Town Planning Department in the municipality of Abu Dhabi states that the late Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan had placed priority on the development of the city of Abu Dhabi. (UAE Interact News Report 2004)

Another very interesting fact in the urban development is the information of the two components of construction taking place on the Amwaj Islands in the northern tip of Muharraq. In a news report published Wednesday, April 21, 1004 entitled “His Highness the Crown Prince lays the Foundation Stone for USD110 million Tala Island Project” the facts are revealed that the Kahaleej Development Company (Tameer) has aligned with Ossis Real Estate Developers in the undertaking of development for the 136,000m2 residential Island project consisting of 88 villas and 561 apartments that will be constructed in a curve around the lagoon. This community will be secure and gated with a private beach, Aqua Park, retail areas, sports center and coffee shops. Tala Island will consist of 48 beachfront villas, 42 mid-size two-story villas, 12 penthouses and 31 blocks of 365 apartments plus another 148 apartments that contain a view of the lagoon and sea.

Dubai city has experienced rapid development and in the built up area increased from ~13 Sq. Km. In 1973 to 238 Sq. Kim in 2003. Two areas, the Emirates road and Jabal Ali are not included and are both areas that have experienced drastic expansion in the last three years. The industrial area in Musaffah has quadrupled from 11 Sq. Km in 1984 to 40 Sq. Km. In 2003 and from the Lansat TM bands 7, 4, & 2 images there is an agricultural revolution in the middle of the desert in Liwa, Alain and SE of Ras Alkheimah. Furthermore Abu Dhabi has seen an expansion from 11.2 Sq. Km. In the built up area of the images to 76 Sq. Kim in 1988. (Alhameli & Alshehhi 2004) The Chart marked Chart 2.0 below shows the progression of buildup in the emirates of Dubai and Abu Dhabi.

Chart 2.0







Abu Dhabi



Increases in constructions and building measured in square kilometers

Note: Expansion of Abu Dhabi and Dubai cities in thirty years, using Landsat and IKONOS satellites imagery. (Alhameli & Alshehhi 2004)


The United Arab Emirates has been led by wise counsel in the investing of its profits that have come from the oil industry in the region. The landscaped seafront in Abu Dhabi is beautiful as surely is all the areas being so competently constructed, refurbished, and renovated with the oil industries profits. As is evidenced by reports and studies the area is quickly becoming a tourist attraction with many more projects underway to draw tourists into the region. Since 1973, or thirty years ago the square kilometer area in both Dubai and Abu Dhabi has increased over a hundred-fold and according to all evidence the projects do not show any sign of soon ceasing to churn out new dwellings, centers, airport and seaport additions to the land of the United Arab Emirates.


History of Dubai [Online] at: http://www.datadubai.com/history.htm

History of Abu Dhabi located [Online] available at: www.gia.gov.ge

Alhameli, Mahesh S. Colonel & Alshehhi, Ali M Major (2004) “Images are an Outstanding Evidence on Rapid Development: “A Perfect Example from United Arab Emirates (UAE)” UAE Air Force & Air Defense Space Reconnaissance Centre Al Dhabi available [Online] at: http://www.isprs.org/istanbul2004/comm2/papers/177.pdf

‘Mourning the Death of UAE’s Founding Father: H.H. Sheikh Zayed bin Sulta Al Nahyan” 1918-2004 [Online] available at: http://www.adnoc.com/adnoc/english / Condolence_book.cfm

Abu Dhabi: United Arab Emirates [Online] available at: http://www.2747.com/2747 / world/city/abudhabi.htm

His Highness the Crown Prince Lays the Foundation Stone for USD110 million Tala Island Project 2004 Apr 20 Bahrain News Release [Online] available at: http://www.ameinfo.com/news/Detailed/38131.html

Remembering a True Conservationist 2004 Arabian Environment WWF [Online] available at: http://www.ameinfo.com/news/Detailed/50095.html

Al Ain Boost for UAE Tourism 2004 May 22 WWF [Online] available at: http://www.ameinfo.com/news / Detailed/39945.html

Tourism Growth for Al Ain in 2004, says Al Humairi 2004 Dec 21 AME [Online] available at: http://www.ameinfo.com/news/Detailed/32621.html

Al Ain to Showcase Offering to Travel Industry 2003 Dec 18 AME Info [Online] available at: http://www.ameinfo.com/news/Detailed/32526.html

Abu Dhabi Airport Traffic Tipped to Reach 5 Million 2004 May 3 AME Info [Online] available at: http://www.ameinfo.com/news/Detailed/38871.html

Al-Barashi Property Development Launched 2002 Jan 29 AME Info [Online] available at: http://www.ameinfo.com/news/Detailed/2797.html

Tour Operators Welcome New UAE Tourism Option 2004 May 4 AME Info [Online] available at: http://www.ameinfo.com/news/Detailed/38931.html

Sri Lanka Tourist Board Sets up Dedicated Website 2004 Dec 30 AME Info [Online] available at: http://www.ameinfo.com/news/Detailed/51417.html

Fbi Property & Development Company Opens for Business 2003 Oct 12 AME Info [Online] available at: http://www.ameinfo.com/news/Detailed/29434.html

Dubai’s GDP Registered 16.7% Growth Touching AED 100 Billion in 2004 AME Info [Online] available at: http://www.ameinfo.com/news/Detailed/51456.html

Dubai’s Waterfront Developments Under Spotlight at Major International Forum 2003 Feb 16 AME Info [Online] available at: http://www.ameinfo.com/news/Detailed/17920

United Arab Emirates Facilities 2004 Global Security Organization [Online] available at: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/uae.htm

UAE News [Online] available at: http://www.portzayed.gov.ae/location/information %20UAE.htm

Chronology of Arthur Erickson’s Middle East Projects [Online] available at: http://cac.mcgill.ca/erickson/chronology.htm

Urban Development GHD [Online] available at: http://www.ghd.com.au/aptrixpublishing.nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/CS+Urban+Development+PDF/$FILE/urban_developmentA4.pdf

Arab Cities News 2 Light Transit Railway (LTR) System to be Applied in Riyadh City 2005 [Online] available at: http://www.araburban.org/AUDI/English/Right m_en/03ArabCitiesNews_en/300804 ArabCitiesNews2.htm

Urban Development: Abu Dhabi [Online] available at: http://www.uae.gov.ae/Government/urban.htm

Plan for Next Phase of Festival City Ready by Mid-2003 UAE Interact News 28 Dec 2004 [Online] available at: http://uaeinteract.com/news/default.asp?ID=31

Urban Development [Online] available at: http://www.uae.gov.ae/Government/urban.htm


History of Abu Dhabi located [Online] available at: www.gia.gov.ge

Alhameli, Mahesh S. Colonel & Alshehhi, Ali M Major (2004) “Images are an Outstanding Evidence on Rapid Development: “A Perfect Example from United Arab Emirates (UAE)” UAE Air Force & Air Defense Space Reconnaissance Centre Al Dhabi available [Online] at: http://www.isprs.org/istanbul2004/comm2/papers/177.pdf

“Mourning the Death of UAE’s Founding Father: H.H. Sheikh Zayed bin Sulta Al Nahyan” 1918-2004 [Online] available at: http://www.adnoc.com/adnoc/english / Condolence_book.cfm

Dubai’s GDP Registered 16.7 Per Cent Growth Touching AED 100 Billion in 2004 (2005) UAE Interact News Report 2005 Jan 2 [Online] available at: http://www.ameinfo.com/cgi-bin/cms/page.cgi?page=print;link=51456

Arab News Archive 12 Dec 2004 [Online] available at: http://uaeinteract.com/news/default.asp?ID=31

Plan for Next Phase of Festival City Ready by Mid-2003 UAE Interact News 28 Dec 2004 [Online] available at: http://uaeinteract.com/news/default.asp?ID=31

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