Social Ecology of Health Promotion Term Paper

Social Ecology of Health Promotion

Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government’s approach to regulatory containments in food.

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The federal government’s approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).

There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for the Federal government to adopt and implement various regulations with the aim of regulating containments in food consequently eliminating citizens’ exposure to the risks at various levels of the food supply system. There is also globalization of the food supply systems. In order to enhance health conditions and safety of its citizens, the government of the United States need to focus on the regulation of the food supply system with the aim of minimizing containments in food. This is a reflection that the regulation is vital in the promotion of health awareness and safety consequently an essential and appropriate component of the development of the economy of the United States. There is need to integrate evolving attitude of the individuals in relation to food safety.

This is because of the great attention on the food security consequently the need for the adoption and implementation of accurate legislations towards minimization of the containments in food. Another aspect of the integration of the regulations on the containments of food is the increase in the concepts of the genetically modified food components as a reflection of technology. Living organisms applicable in the realization of the goals and objectives of this agricultural technology are threats to the development and growth of human beings through deterioration of the health conditions of the citizens.

It is the duty of the government to offer maximum protection to the government on the issues or organisms contributing towards realization of the goals and objectives of this agricultural technology. It is vital for the federal government to integrate effective measures towards elimination of food threats leading to the opportunity to enhance the level of food safety. This is an indication of quality and appropriate health campaign towards the achievement of a health organization and society. The regulations aim at minimizing or preventing transmission of diseases from person to persons hence reducing food contamination with pathogens from individuals, pests, and pets.

Module 05 Question 02: give examples of “potentially hazardous foods.” (Those most frequently associated with outbreaks of bacterial food borne diseases.)

“Potentially hazardous foods” are foods kept in relation to certain temperatures with the aim of minimizing multiplication of any food-poisoning bacteria present in the food leading to minimization or prevention of the formation of toxins in the food. Such food has the ability to contain food poisoning bacteria requiring multiplication in large numbers in order to cause food poisoning. The food has the ability to facilitate multiplication of the food-poisoning bacteria. This is an indication of the role of temperature in enhancing multiplication of the food-poisoning bacteria. It is ideal to maintain temperatures at below 50C or above 600C to minimize the growth of the infectious microorganisms in food (NSW Food Authority, 2008). Some of the examples of the potentially hazardous foods include

Raw or cooked meat such as poultry or game

Foods containing raw of cooked meat such as curries, lasagne, and casseroles

Dairy products: milk, custard, custard tarts, and unbaked cheesecake

Small-goods in the form of Devon, chicken loaf, and ham

Seafood with the exclusion of the live seafood: this include foods such as seafood salad, fish sticks, stews, and soups

Cooked Pasta and rice

Foods containing eggs, nuts, beans, and protein-rich foods such as fresh pasta, soy bean products, and quiche

Processed fruits and vegetables

Foods containing the illustrated foods such as sandwiches, uncooked/cooked pizza, and rolls

Such foods require maintenance in relation to certain degree of temperature in order to eliminate multiplication of the food-poisoning bacteria leading to enhancing health safety of the consumers.

Module 05 Question 03: Are you in favour of meeting U.S. energy needs through increased reliance on nuclear power? Defend your answer.

I am in favour of the implementation of the nuclear power in meeting the United States’ needs. This is because of various benefits or effectiveness in the implementation of the nuclear power or energy to the environment and individuals. Nuclear plants are effective and efficient in the production of large amount of energy or electricity hence the provision of about 2 GW of power to the context of the United States. It is also essential to note the aspect of minimal fuel units applicable in the production of large amount of energy through the nuclear plants. This will enable the United States to reduce its cost on the concept of energy or electricity while expanding objectives of rural electrification (Dickes 2013).

There is no need to focus on interruptions of power supply in case of application of the nuclear power towards meeting the needs of the United States. This is because of the presence of uranium, which is a reflection of power for this reason the opportunity for the United States to address and meet its objectives hence fostering economic development. This level of reliability in relation to power supply is vital for the development of the economy consequently enabling the nation to meet its essential and critical goals and objectives. There is protection of the environment through lack of emissions of the greenhouse gases. There are minimal greenhouse gases in the process of mining of the uranium. Despite this notion, it is essential to note the minimal levels of the greenhouse gases in comparison to burning of the fossil fuels. Efficient mining and transportation of uranium is essential for the realization of carbon free nuclear power enabling the United States to focus on the protection of the environment. It is essential to note accessibility of the nuclear power or uranium unlike the case of oil. It is also effective to note that nuclear plants are safer in comparison to burning of fossil fuels (Rogner 2010).

This relates to the minimal number of deaths under the influence of nuclear power. It is also ideal to note on the influence of the nuclear power in minimizing food-poisoning organisms in the food processing and preparation systems. Nuclear power will be vital for the increase in the health safety and security of the United States’ citizens consequently promoting economic development and social growth. This makes it ideal for the United States to meet its goals and objectives or needs (Dickes 2013).

Module 06 Question 01: What is meant by the “Greenhouse Effect”? What are the problems that might result from a global warming trend?

Greenhouse effect is process through which short wavelengths in relation to visible light from the sun have the ability to pass through transparent medium and undergo absorption while longer wavelengths with reference to in-fared re-radiation from heated objects are incapable of penetrating the medium. There is increase of heating consequently high global temperatures under the influence of trapping of the long wavelength radiation. Greenhouse effect is a result of the implications of the greenhouse gases into the atmosphere hence reducing the rate at which the planet losses in-fared radiation to the outer space. This makes the lower surface of the atmosphere and the earth to be warmer than the normal or expected levels because of the lack of opportunity to release sufficient energy to the outer space (Gareca et al., 2012).

This is a reflection of the concept of man-made greenhouse effect through activities such as burning of fossil fuels, industrialization, and deforestations. There is the concept of natural greenhouse effect under the influence of water vapour and clouds. This lack of ability by the planet to lose energy to the outer space under the influence of greenhouse effects eventually leads to the concept of global warming. This relates to the increase in the levels of the average global temperatures hence a reflection of climate change (Gareca et al., 2012).

There are various negative influences of global warming hence implications on the development of human beings, animals, and plants. One of the essential effects of global warming is changes in the climatic conditions and weather patterns. This is through realization of rapid drought because of the increase in the global temperatures. There is increase in the number of fire incidences in relation to wild-land under the influence of the global warming. There is increase in the negative implications on the health of the individuals. Global warming is an essential contributor to the numerous cases of deaths. For instance, severe heat waves in the context of North America in 2006 were vital in the deaths of approximately 225 individuals. This is an indication of the threat of the global warming to the individuals, plants, and animals (Gareca et al., 2012).

There is an influence on the wildlife system because of the implications of global warming. For instance, there is a great impact on the development of the polar bears, which have to swim longer distances in order to access ice floes. This might contribute towards the extinction of the polar bears because of the lack of ice under the influence of increased heat or global warming. There is an increase in the sea level because of the thermal expansion of the oceans and melting of the most mountain glaciers/ice caps. This will result into loss of coastal wetlands and Barrier Island leading to great risk in relation to the concept of flooding of the coastal communities. Some of the effects of global warming include increase in the level of climatic disasters, economic problems, and high water temperatures thus deterioration of the ecosystem (Gareca et al., 2012).

Module 06 Question 02: explain how high levels of air pollution can influence the frequency of bacterial diseases such as pneumonia or bronchitis.

Air pollution refers to the presence of one or numerous chemicals in the atmosphere in quantities with the ability to cause harm to human beings, and other forms of life or materials. Air is always on the move facilitating the ability to transport chemicals or products from one destination to another. As the clean air moves within the atmosphere and across the globe, it collects products in relation to natural events (storms and eruptions) and human activities such as emissions from the cars and smokestacks. These are known as the primary pollutants. They have the ability to mix vertically and horizontal to form secondary pollutants in relation to air pollution. Primary and secondary pollutants have the ability to travel numerous kilometres before returning to the earth’s surface. Most of the bacterial diseases such as pneumonia and bronchitis are under the influence of air pollution. Chemical in the atmosphere contributes to the deterioration of the health condition of an individual through affecting the natural preventive mechanisms (Feng & Yang 2012).

Constant smoking or access to smoking components through air pollution is one of the major effects on the lungs. This will lead to the damage of the lungs of the human beings and animals eventually development of bronchitis. Air pollution’s constant movement is also an essential component towards influencing frequency of the bacterial diseases such as pneumonia and bronchitis. This is because of the diseases to affect the breathing system of the individuals (Feng & Yang 2012).

Module 06 Question 03: discuss why allowance trading has been such a successful strategy on regulatory efforts to reduce acid rain. How do these allowances work?

Allowance trading is a representation of the dramatic departure from the traditional command and control regulations. Its main objective is to maximize public health through provision of adequate and specific emission limits hence guarding against global warming and climate changes. The strategy was effective and efficient through implementation of specific and flexible emissions limitations that the affected sources must adhere to in order to enhance environmental safety. Under this system, it is essential to allocate utility units to the affected in relation to the historic fuel consumption and emission rates. This is an indication that for each ton of sulphur dioxide, there is one allowance being retired under this system leading to prohibition of its use in the context of the affected source. Allowance trading provides three avenues for the interaction in relation to emissions.

This indicates that affected sources have the ability to buy, sell, or bank the units. It provides an opportunity for all individuals to acquire allowances and participate in the context of the trading system. Emissions by the sources depend on the federal or state limits with reference to the Title I of the Clean Air Act in order to offer maximum protection to the public health. This is an indication that sources must not violate limits set by federal or states in relation to the protection of the public health regardless of the number of allowances for the source.

Module 07 Question 01: discuss the process of eutrophication and explain how human interventions have influenced the eutrophication process

Eutrophication refers to the process through which accumulation of too many nutrients stimulates rapid growth of plants, algae, clogging of the waterways, and creates blooms of toxic blue-green algae (Riplett et al., 2012). This is through reduction in the levels of oxygen in the water following the death and decomposition of plants or algae. Plants and algae utilize maximum oxygen when they die and decompose reducing the level of oxygen available for the aquatic species. This is essential for the death of aquatic species reducing the recreational and aesthetic value of the lake. Some of the nutrients essential for the process of eutrophication include nitrates (in sewage and fertilizers) and phosphates in the detergents and fertilizers. Human interventions in relation to the alteration of the nutrients inputs continue to fuel the rate of eutrophication. This is known as the concept of human-induced or cultural eutrophication (Bagousse-Pinguet et al., 2012).

This is because of the increase in the levels of phosphorus inputs from partially treated sewage and agricultural processes or inputs such as fertilizers. Laws and regulations are in place to enhance minimization of eutrophication through limitation of the inputs with reference to nitrogen and phosphorus. The aim of these interventions is to reduce the effect of eutrophication on the aquatic species and processes of the planet. This is because ecosystem is an essential component of the planet leading to the need to protect aquatic species within the water bodies (Marco-Barba et al., 2013).


Marco-Barba, J., Mesquita-Joanes, F., & Miracle, M. (2013). Ostracod palaeolimnological analysis reveals drastic historical changes in salinity, eutrophication and biodiversity loss in a coastal Mediterranean lake. Holocene, 23(4), 556-567.

Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Liancourt, P., Gross, N., & Straile, D. (2012). Indirect facilitation promotes macrophyte survival and growth in freshwater ecosystems threatened by eutrophication. Journal Of Ecology, 100(2), 530-538.

Riplett, L., Engstrom, D., & Conley, D. (2012). Changes in amorphous silica sequestration with eutrophication of riverine impoundments. Biogeochemistry, 108(1-3), 413-427.

Gareca, E.E., Vandelook, F., Fernandez, M., Hermy, M., & Honnay, O. (2012). Seed

germination, hydrothermal time models and the effects of global warming on a threatened high Andean tree species. Seed Science Research, 22(4), 287-298.

Feng, J., & Yang, W. (2012). Effects of Particulate Air Pollution on Cardiovascular Health: A

Population Health Risk Assessment. Plos ONE, 7(3), 1-9.

Fortin, N.D. (2011). The United States FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: The Key New

Requirements. European Food & Feed Law Review, 6(5), 260-268.

Rogner, H. (2010). Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development. Journal of International

Affairs, 64(1), 137-163.

Dickes, L., Wyman, D., & Springs, S. (2013). The Power of Energy: Effects of a Nuclear

Power Station on Land Sale Prices. Appraisal Journal, 81(1), 34-44.

NSW Food Authority. (2008). Potentially Hazardous Foods: Foods that require temperature control for safety. NSW/FA/CP016/0810

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