evidence and analysis: “The national guardsmen violated the Students right of assembly at Kent State University on May 4, 1970.” The paper will describe the evidences and circumstances of May 4, 1970 in details, the analysis and the observation of the relative facts will be included in the paper so that the readers can gain effective information regarding the day in which the nation lost four lives. The paper will initially describe the Kent State University, its formation and the relative subjects, which the university offers to the students.
THE INTRODUCTION OF THE UNIVERSITY AND ITS IMPORTANCE:
Kent State University, among top colleges and universities, offers educational opportunities ranging from certificate programs, associate’s, bachelor’s, master’s, educational specialist and doctoral degrees. Kent State, located in Northeast Ohio, is the second largest among Ohio universities. Kent State, regarded as one of the nation’s top 90 public research universities, serves more than 36,000 students on eight campuses. Learn more about undergraduate scholarships, Ohio scholarships and continuing education courses at Kent State.” http://www.kent.edu/academics/
Kent State University is recognized world wide because it offers quality education to the students who visit this university for gaining higher education in various subjects. This university is considered as the second largest university in the Ohio, it is recognized and appreciated because the teachers and the education providers are all dedicated and hardworking, they provide the students with all the relative information and knowledge, which they know. The system of education in the Kent State University is very organized and systematic. The university consists of many professionals who are continuously involved in the task of providing quality education to the students. These professionals are very experienced and matured and they know the real worth of education.
Kent State University is an institution of higher learning located in Kent, Ohio, which is 1 hour south-east from Cleveland. It is the second largest university in Ohio with more than 35,000 students on eight campuses. Regional campuses include Ashtabula, East Liverpool, Geauga, Salem, Stark, Trumbull and Tuscarawas.The School’s sports teams are called the Golden Flashes. They compete in the NCAA’s Division I-A, and the Mid-American Conference.The university is best known, outside Ohio, for a single event: The Kent State massacre, when four students were shot by the National Guard on May 4, 1970.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kent_State_University
The Kent state university is an institution, which is recognized because of its quality of education and therefore, the number of students is increasing every year. The graduates who are from Kent state university are very professional and diversified in nature and they know how to handle their careers professionally. The Kent state university is therefore regarded and respected, as it is one of the best educational institutions of the state. The history and researches regarding the importance of university relates to the fact that:
Kent State also promotes opportunities for undergraduate students to enhance their professional skills through undergraduate research projects with faculty and internship programs in their field of study. The Honors College offers students with outstanding intellectual and creative ability enriched and challenging courses and programs and opportunities for close relationships with their peers and faculty. At the graduate level, students may engage in exceptional research opportunities through the 35 disciplines at Kent State that offer 49 masters programs and 21 doctoral programs, and choose from among more than 100 areas of specialization. The doctoral programs afford participants the opportunity to choose from 50 specializations.” http://www.usjournal.com/en/students/campuses/kent.html
The administration and control of the activities in the Kent state university is excellent and impressive because they have hired professionals and educated people who possess the skills of controlling and management. One of the excellent advantage or characteristic of Kent state university is that it ha developed various programs for undergraduates who are willing to enhance their performance and skills so that they can get good career opportunities. These programs have been developed and implemented by the university so that more and more students can enroll themselves and can gain quality education from the institution. Although the institution is being recognized and appreciated but there is one specific incidence which is related to Kent state university and this evidence has destroyed the reputation of the university, this specific evidence was happened on May 4,1970.The incidence is as follows:
On May 4, l970 members of the Ohio National Guard fired into a crowd of Kent State University demonstrators, killing four and wounding nine Kent State students. The impact of the shootings was dramatic. The event triggered a nationwide student strike that forced hundreds of colleges and universities to close H.R. Haldeman, a top aide to President Richard Nixon, suggests the shootings had a direct impact on national politics at the conclusion of the anti-war rally on Friday, May 1; student protest leaders had called for another rally to be held on the Commons at noon on Monday, May 4. Although University officials had attempted on the morning of May 4 to inform the campus that the rally was prohibited, a crowd began to gather beginning as early as 11 a.m. By noon, the entire Commons area contained approximately 3000 people. Although estimates are inexact, probably about 500 core demonstrators were gathered around the Victory Bell at one end of the Commons, another 1000 people were “cheerleaders” supporting the active demonstrators, and an additional 1500 people were spectators standing around the perimeter of the Commons.” http://dept.kent.edu/sociology/lewis/lewihen.htm
This evidence relates to the activity which was performed by the national guardsmen as they violated the student rights of assembly at Kent state university on May 4, 1970.This incident was very popular in the 1970’s because it took the four precious lives of the students of the Kent state university. The researchers and evidences regarding this incident declares the fact that there were no controlling policy or any other strategy which would have stopped the national guardsmen and which would have saved the lives of the four students of the university. This incident is still remembered in the present day.
The evidences and researches shows that on May 4,1970″When the National Guard arrived in town that evening, a large demonstration was underway; and the campus ROTC building was burning, having been set on fire by protesters. Protesters prevented the fire department from extinguishing the blaze, and the National Guard cleared the campus. On Monday, May 4th, a rally was scheduled to be held at noon, and University officials attempted to inform the campus community that the gathering was banned, by handing out 12,000 leaflets. An estimated three thousand people gathered on the university commons. A group of seventy National Guard troops advanced on the protesters with fixed bayonets in an attempt to disperse the crowd. The National Guardsmen were wearing gas masks in the hot sun (obscuring their vision and causing heat exhaustion) and had little training in riot control. They soon found themselves trapped on an athletic practice field, which was fenced on three sides, where they remained for ten minutes. The Guardsmen then began to withdraw back in the direction from which they had come, followed by some of the protesters.When they reached the top of a hill, twenty-eight of the Guardsmen suddenly turned on the crowd and fired a 13-second fusillade of between 61 and 67 shots, killing four students and wounding nine. Only one of the four students killed was participating in the protest, and ironically one of the students killed, William Schroeder, who was not even involved in the demonstration, was a member of the campus ROTC chapter.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kent_State_massacre
The investigation and researches show that these national guardsmen were continuously making strategies and methodologies top attack the university and to cause them harm. And therefore, they developed a plan and implemented on this plan, which took the lives of four people. One of the most interesting evidence regarding this event is that although there were many students and teachers but there was no security arranged and due to this factor the four students lost their lives.
Since the killings of Jeff Miller, Allison Krause, Bill Schroeder, and Sandy Scheuer, both those within the government and the university have yet to tell all that they know about the events that led to the murder of four students on May 4,1970″ http://www2.acorn.net/~aa378/
Even after so many years this incident is still related and remembered because of its harshness and bitterness, the researches show that now the administration of the university pay special consideration for the security and safety of the students so that this incident cannot happen again. This incident has opened the eyes of the people at the Kent state university and they are more emphasizing on the needs of security and safety. They know that they cannot bring back those four students who were killed in this incident yet they can save the lives of the others who are present and studying in the university.
On Kent State University in Ohio May 4, 1970, four students were killed by the Ohio National Guard during an antiwar rally. Sandra Scheuer was killed while on her way to class; Jeffrey Miller was killed when taking part in the rally; William Schroeder was killed while looking at the fight between demonstrators and Guardsmen; and Allison Krause, who may or may not have been taking part in the rally, was also killed. Nine others were wounded. After the killings more than 450 universities and colleges throughout the nation were closed because of student or faculty protest strikes. Riots swept over the nation’s campuses and at the ending of May the National Guard had been called out 24 times at 21 campuses in 16 states.” http://www.stud.hum.ku.dk/rikkebj/kentframe.htm
This incident was happened during a rally, which was held at the university premises. After this incident many students protested against the demonstration of the university and they were very angry at their strategies of administration. The analysis and researches declares the fact that national guardsmen at the Kent state university were responsible for all the actions and they made strategic plans so that they could attack the Kent state university and could destroy its reputation. They became successful in doing so.
One rumor has it that the Guardsmen were told the same night that they would never be prosecuted by the state of Ohio. And they never were. The Nixon administration stalled for years, announcing “investigations” that led nowhere; White House tapes subsequently released show that Nixon thought demonstrators were bums, asked the Secret Service to go beat them up, and apparently felt that the Kent State victims had it coming. As did most of the country; William Gordon calls the killings “the most popular murders ever committed in the United States.” http://www.spectacle.org/595/kent.html
This incident is still regarded as the most popular murders ever committed in the United States. This statement is strong enough to describe the harshness and the bitterness of the incident which was made on 4 May, 1970.The researches also show that the guardsmen were also not punished for their brutal action but other findings and researches show that some of them were arrested and punished by the police and the authorities of U.S.A. May 4, 1970 is still remembered by the families of the students who were killed on that day and they still blame the authorities of the Kent State University. It was due to this incident that the reputation and the goodwill of the university were badly affected.
The tragic events of May 4, 1970, had a profound impact on Kent State University, the nation and the world. In the ensuing years, Kent State’s learning community has honored the memories of Allison Krause, Jeffrey Miller, Sandra Scheuer and William Schroeder with an enduring dedication to scholarship that seeks to prevent violence and promote democratic values from public service to civil discourse.” http://www.kent.edu/History/may4_1970/index.cfm
The students and the people at the Kent state university and as well as the nation do remember this day every year. They honor the memories of the four dedicated students and they remember their sacrifice with respect and with the feeling of pride. They regard their spirit as an unmatchable spirit of pure dedication which helped the university and the state in preventing violence and which helped in promoting the democratic values. The detailed analysis of the incident also state that:
Kent State University was placed in an international spotlight after a tragic end to a student demonstration against the Vietnam War and the National Guard on May 4, 1970. Shortly after noon on that Monday, 13 seconds of rifle fire by a contingent of 28 Ohio National Guardsmen left four students dead, one permanently paralyzed, and eight others wounded. Not every student was a demonstration participant or an observer. Some students were walking to and from class. The closest student wounded was 30 yards away from the Guard, while the farthest was nearly 250 yards away.” http://dept.kent.edu/ksumay4/welcome.htm
The description and investigation of the incident declares that the national guardsmen were very strict and in addition to the lives of the four people they also wounded many other students at the Kent state university. From there on the downfall of the university started and the university became a news for the country and for the nation, the students were fearing to enroll themselves as the students in Kent state university. The university, which was regarded as the topmost university of the country, was regarded as one of the dangerous place.
On May 4, 1970, Ohio National Guardsmen killed four college students and wounded nine others – one of them, Dean Kahler, is paralyzed below the waist – on the campus of Kent State University. Nobody was found guilty of the bloodletting. On that awful day, Guardsmen fired M-1 rifles,.45 pistols and a shotgun for 13 seconds, killing Allison Krause and Jeffrey Miller, ROTC student William Schroeder and Sandra Scheuer who was on her way to class, while wounding nine others. Many Americans were outraged at the shootings but the vast majority were not, apparently believing that a nation at war was threatened by “radical” challenges on college campuses and elsewhere and that a government at war was perfectly justified in spying on its dissenting citizens and sending provocateurs to disrupt antiwar opponents.” http://www.antiwar.com/orig/polner.php?articleid=1856
The investigators also found the tools and instruments, which the national guardsmen used for committing such actions, and they stated that these tools remained in the custody of the police after the incident occurred. Although many protests and actions were made against this incident gut to no avail, these guardsmen were not humans as they treated the students and the people of Kent state university as if they were animals. It has also been noted that:
Some books were published quickly, providing a fresh but frequently superficial or inaccurate analysis of the shootings (e.g., Esterase and Roberts, 1970; Warren, 1970; Casale and Paskoff, 1971; Michener, 1971; Stone, 1971; Taylor et al., 1971; and Tompkins and Anderson, 1971). Numerous additional books have been published in subsequent years (e.g., Davies, 1973; Hare, 1973; Hensley and Lewis, 1978; Kelner and Munves, 1980; Hensley, 1981; Payne, 1981; Bills, 1988; and Gordon, 1997). These books have the advantage of a broader historical perspective than the earlier books, but no single book can be considered the definitive account of the events and aftermath of May 4, l970 at Kent State University” http://dept.kent.edu/sociology/lewis/LEWIHEN.htm
Many students and other people of the nation were made aware by the books which the authors wrote about the incident of May 4,1970.After thoroughly understanding the incident and its related factors the nation was with the students of the Kent state university and they were deeply depressed on the lives of the four people who were killed during this incident. The authors made an attempt to present the details and relative factors regarding the incident of May 4, 1970 and the nation can also participate to remember the loving memories of the dedicated students.
A new generation steps forward to stand with the people of the world. The Kent State Anti-War committee held a protest, 300 to 500 strong, on a day that symbolizes the crimes of U.S. imperialism and the people’s defiance. Speakers at the rally (including Jeff Paterson, Tom Grace, C. Clark Kissinger, Steve Soseby, a message from Mumia Abu-Jamal, and representatives from All-African People’s Revolutionary Party” http://rwor.org/a/v24/1151-1160/1151/kent.htm
Due to the importance and effectiveness of this incident many students of the Kent tae university have developed anti-war committees and these committees have also protested against the incidence of May 4, 1970.The purpose of the formation of such committees is to protect the rights of the students and to stop the people from committing such brutal actions. After realizing the importance of this incidence, now, the students at the university remember the four dedicated students in the following words:
In loving memory of: Allison Krause, Jeffrey Miller, Sandra Schever, and William Schroeder. As we held hands and meditated at the monument at Kent State University with the names of these 4 students etched into the stone, murdered by the Ohio National Guard on May 4, 1970, needless to say, it intrinsically touched us, and we suddenly found ourselves hugging and weeping, having come from the A20th anti-war event in DC in conjuction with the demonstrations against the IMF and World Bank.” http://sf.indymedia.org/news/2002/05/126167.php
The paper will present a conclusion by answering the following questions related to the research study:
Does the study support or reject your hypothesis?
Founded 1910 as a normal school, became Kent State College in 1929, gained university status in 1935. The university’s academic programs and research facilities include the Honors Center (begun in 1961 as an honors program, became in 1970 a separate college), the Center for Peaceful Change, and the Glenn H. Brown Liquid Crystal Institute. Seven regional campuses of the university offer associate degrees. In May, 1970, national attention was focused on the Kent State campus when four students were killed by Ohio National Guardsmen during an anti-Vietnam War protest.” http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/K/KentS1tat.asp
The hypothesis of the paper is related to the Kent state university and the incident which happened on May 4,1970.The evidence and analysis have supported the thesis statement that the national guardsmen violated the Students right of assembly at Kent State University on May 4, 1970.The Kent state university and its importance has been presented in the paper together with the description of the details and the incident on MAY 4,1970.
On May 2, some students helped with the city’s clean-up while others continued their protests by burning the Army Reserve Officer Training Corps building. When the firefighters arrived, students slashed their hoses. Then the National Guard cleared the campus, forcing even non-students into dormitories. Then on May 4, a large crowd gathered. National Guardsmen moved the crowd, thinking they would disperse. They did not, and the riot worsened. The Guardsmen were supposed to fire warning shots, but four students were killed and nine were injured. Kent State has come a long way since this tragedy.” http://www.teenink.com/Past/2003/December/17262.html
The study is based on the analysis and observation of these strategies of Kent State University, the hypothesis is also related to the topic and the study do supports the hypothesis regarding the of Kent State University and May 4,incident of the year 1970. The study has discovered the relative factors, which are linked with the strategies and methodologies of the incidence, which was happened on May 4 at the Kent State University. The paper has initially described the position and importance of the university and then the paper has gradually discussed the incidence with the analysis’s and observation of the various factors which were included ion the incidence of May 4,1970.The researches study proves that this incident was happened due to the involvement of national guardsmen at the university and they brutally killed the students of the university. May 4 is still remembered by the nation on the while in order to remember the great sacrifices of the four dedicated students of the university. The study has presented all the details regarding the incidence of May 4,1970.
On May 4, 1970, four students were killed at the hands of the National Guard during a protest against the Vietnam War at Kent State University. What is commonly seen now as a tragic assault on the Vietnamese people was widely accepted at the time as a just war. We must learn from our mistakes and insure that the voices of dissent are no longer repressed.” http://www.fbirecords.com/ksawc/may4call.htm
Does the study support or contradict previous research?
The study do support the previous researches and these researches have also stressed on the point that Kent State university was recognized and appreciated because of the quality of its education and its administration but after the incidence of May 4,1970 the university lost its reputation and millions of students were affected in gaining admission in this university. This university lost its reputation and the students suffered a lot due to the incidence of May 4,1970 but the most important factor is top remember the sacrifice of the four students who were killed during this incidence on May 4,1970.
The guardsmen’s violent actions blotted the sun from my mental sky that day. They also caused me — and many people like me — to realize with a sudden, mind-numbing jolt that our world would never be the same again.” http://www.jewishsf.com/bk030502/comm3.shtml
The above mentioned statement is of a student who was present at the day of incident and he declared that it was all due to the strategies of the national guardsmen and they were involved in the serious killings of the four students at the Kent state University.
Is the study conclusive or is further research needed?
The study is conclusive in nature because it has discussed all the related factors, which are linked with the Kent State University and the day of May 4, 1970. Further research is not needed in this regard because the information provided in the paper are conclusive as well as effective in nature.
What are the implications of this research to the discipline?
This research study will help the readers to know about Kent state university, its establishment and importance and the readers will also know the details of the incident which happened on may 4,1970.The paper has analyzed the factors and evidences regarding the incidence of May 4, 1970 and these analysis and researches proves that the national guardsmen were responsible for committing such brutal acts and they were also punished by the government authorities of the United States.
By 1970, the war was no longer only being fought in Vietnam; it was also being fought on the mainland of America. Millions of students around the country demonstrated against a war, which they felt to be unjust and inhumane. Their protests led to conflicts with local police, and even the National Guard in some instances” http://www.wellesley.edu/Polisci/wj/Vietimages/kent.htm
Do your findings support or reject your hypothesis?
The information and findings have been collected by various websites and these websites are an authentic source of information. The findings and information do support the hypothesis and this information declares that National guardsmen violated the Students right of assembly at Kent State University on May 4, 1970. And due to this four students at the university lost their lives. These students are still remembered for the great sacrifice that they have made for the nation on the whole.
The reaction to what happened at Kent State is indicative of the turbulent time in which it occurred. Public opinion pollsters found the immediate national reaction to be one of absolving the Guard and placing blame on the students for the tragedy at Kent State. (12) This reaction appalled many individuals who viewed the Guard’s action as examples of “excessive force” or ~premeditated murder.”(13) In attempting to piece together the story of Kent State, writers from differing backgrounds, and advocates of various ideologies investigated the same event, but came up with differing accounts of the tragedy. Some adopted a multicasual explanation, and placed blame for the incident on the students, outside agitators, the guardsmen, and the administration.” http://may4archive.org/era.shtml
All in all, it can be rightly said that this research study is dedicated to the topic of Kent state university and the incidence on may 4,1970 the researches and findings have proved that although the university was renowned and famous for the quality of education which it provided but after the incidence of May 4, 1970 the university lost its reputation and its goodwill was disturbed because of the brutal actions of the national guardsmen who took the lives of four innocent students at the university. After the happening of this incident the administration authorities of the university have developed various measures to ensure proper security and safety for the students at the university and they have implemented various strategies, which could help the students in the times of such crisis. Even after so many years these students are still re4rmbered for their great sacrifices and the university has again gained its original position and millions of students are coming in this university for attaining higher education.
As retrieved from The May 4th Deaths: Kent State 30 Years Ago by Murray Polner http://www.antiwar.com/orig/polner.php?articleid=1856On May 18,2004
As retrieved from THE MAY 4 SHOOTINGS AT KENT STATE UNIVERSITY: THE SEARCH FOR HISTORICAL ACCURACY BY JERRY M. LEWIS and THOMAS R. HENSLEY http://dept.kent.edu/sociology/lewis/LEWIHEN.htm. On May 18,2004
As retrieved at http://dept.kent.edu/sociology/lewis/lewihen.htm. THE MAY 4 SHOOTINGS AT KENT STATE UNIVERSITY: THE SEARCH FOR HISTORICAL ACCURACY BY JERRY M. LEWIS and THOMAS R. HENSLEY On May 18,2004
As retrieved from May 4th, 1970 – General Information
http://dept.kent.edu/ksumay4/welcome.htm. On May 18,2004
As retrieved from Kent State University From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kent_State_UniversityOn May 18,2004
As retrieved from Kent State shootings (Redirected from Kent State massacre)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kent_State_massacreOn May 18,2004
As retrieved from Kent State University
http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/K/KentS1tat.aspOn May 18,2004
As retrieved from KENT STATE ANTI-WAR COMMITTEE
http://www.fbirecords.com/ksawc/may4call.htm. On May 18,2004
As retrieved from Kent State University http://www.kent.edu/academics/On May 18,2004
As retrieved from Inquire, Learn, Reflect: May 4, 1970
http://www.kent.edu/History/may4_1970/index.cfmOn May 18,2004
As retrieved from May Fourth Task Force
http://www2.acorn.net/~aa378/On May 18,2004
As retrieved from Remembering Kent State and powerful lessons of past Paula Maggio
http://www.jewishsf.com/bk030502/comm3.shtml. On May 18,2004
As retrieved from Historical Context of the Event 1997 by J. Gregory Payne Ph.D. http://may4archive.org/era.shtml. On May 18,2004
As retrieved from May 4: The Spirit of Kent State
http://rwor.org/a/v24/1151-1160/1151/kent.htm. On May 18,2004
As retrieved from May 4, 1970: Kent State Massacre By Jack Stewart Saturday May 04, 2002 at 07:24 AM http://sf.indymedia.org/news/2002/05/126167.phpOn May 18,2004
As retrieved from Kent State, May 4, 1970: America Kills Its Children
http://www.spectacle.org/595/kent.html. On May 18,2004
As retrieved from Introduction
http://www.stud.hum.ku.dk/rikkebj/kentframe.htm. On May 18,2004
As retrieved from Kent State University by Cassie H., Boardman, OH
http://www.teenink.com/Past/2003/December/17262.html. On May 18,2004
As retrieved from Kent State University (Ohio), May 4, 1970
http://www.usjournal.com/en/students/campuses/kent.html. On May 18,2004
As retrieved from Kent State University (Ohio), May 4, 1970 http://www.wellesley.edu/Polisci/wj/Vietimages/kent.htm. On May 18,2004
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