Influence of Television Programs on Behavior

Violence and Sex in Television Programs

In ‘Programs Do Not Sell Products in Advertisement,’ Brad J. Bushman provides the primary hypothesis regarding the study. He alleges that televised sex and violence impair the memory for the advertised products. Besides, there is a supplementary hypothesis that functions as the framework of the study. Bushman hypothesizes that incorporating an advertisement in a program that contains sex or violence decreased the viewer’s possibility of remembering the advertised brand. Besides, this would reduce their interest in purchasing the advertised brand and their likelihood of choosing a coupon for that brand (Bushman, 2005).

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Influence of Television Programs on Behavior
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

The hypotheses emanate from a meta-analysis of 16 studies that considered 2474 participants. The assessment illustrated that the memory for advertised brands was 27% lower if ads were embedded in violent programs unlike if the same ads were integrated into non-violent programs. According to Bushman, the most plausible reason for the memory impairment is that viewer exercise a limited amount of attention towards television programs. According to research, people tend to pay more attention to violent media than non-violent ones. Besides, individuals pay more attention to sexual programs than to non-sexual media. The author affirms that the perception from an evolutionary perspective. In this case, he compares the situation to our ancestors who paid more attention to violence and sexual cues (Bushman, 2005). For this reason, they were more likely to acquire the ability to survive and pass on their genes than their counterparts who ignored the same. The allusion means that the more attention viewers pay to violent and sexual programs, the less attention they have available for the commercials integrated into those programs.


The study seeks to test whether televised violence and sex have any influence on the buying intentions and consumer behaviors. Thus, the independent variables of the study were the sex and violence programs as well as nonviolent and nonsexual programs. In contrast, the dependent variables entailed viewers’ buying intention, the likelihood of remembering the advertised brand, their interest in buying the brand and their likelihood of selecting a coupon for that brand. It is worth noting that there were 336 participants aged between 18 and 54 years of both genders (Bushman, 2005).


The researcher identified that the type of TV program had a significant effect on the violence ratings, F (3, 332) = 173.56, p < 0.0001. The notion means that as the researcher hypothesized, violence ratings were higher for violent and violent sexual programs unlike the neutral ones. Beisdes, there the type of TV program also had a significant effect on the sexual arousal rating F (3, 332) = 78.31, p < 0.0001. The latter concurs with the researcher’s hypothesis that sexual arousal ratings were higher for sexual and violent programs than for neutral and violent programs. However, the results illustrated that there were not significant differences among the six neutral programs. The same holds for the six neutral and six violent and sexual programs on any of the result measures. The latter refers to the recall, recognition, buying intentions and coupon choices (Bushman, 2005).

For each type of brand, participants indicated the brand they were most likely to buy. The results indicated that the type of TV program significantly influenced the buying intentions. Furthermore, the type of TV programs significantly affected the brand recall. In this case, the likelihood to remember was 68% higher for participants who saw a program without violence and sex than for those who watched a program with violence or sex. The notion was similar for recognition and coupon choices (Bushman, 2005).


Bushman replicates previous studies in expressing that televised violence and sex impair the memory for advertised products. In my perspective, I support the notion because people give much attention to violence and sexual programs that only a little remains to pay to any embedded ads. This explains why many studies concur with the notion that televised violence increases societal violence.


Bushman, B.J. (2005). Violence and Sex in Television Programs Do Not Sell Products in Advertisements. American Psychological Society. Vol. 16 — No.9. 702-708

What Will You Get?

We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.

Premium Quality

Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.

Experienced Writers

Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.

On-Time Delivery

Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.

24/7 Customer Support

Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.

Complete Confidentiality

Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.

Authentic Sources

We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.

Moneyback Guarantee

Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.

Order Tracking

You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.


Areas of Expertise

Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.

Areas of Expertise

Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.


Trusted Partner of 9650+ Students for Writing

From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.

Preferred Writer

Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.

Grammar Check Report

Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.

One Page Summary

You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.

Plagiarism Report

You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.

Free Features $66FREE

  • Most Qualified Writer $10FREE
  • Plagiarism Scan Report $10FREE
  • Unlimited Revisions $08FREE
  • Paper Formatting $05FREE
  • Cover Page $05FREE
  • Referencing & Bibliography $10FREE
  • Dedicated User Area $08FREE
  • 24/7 Order Tracking $05FREE
  • Periodic Email Alerts $05FREE

Our Services

Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.

  • On-time Delivery
  • 24/7 Order Tracking
  • Access to Authentic Sources
Academic Writing

We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.

Professional Editing

We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.

Thorough Proofreading

We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.


Delegate Your Challenging Writing Tasks to Experienced Professionals

Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!

Check Out Our Sample Work

Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality

All samples
Thesis/Thesis chapter
Research paper
Essay (any type)
creating a Code of Conduct
View this sample
Research paper
Week 1 Journal Assignment
Undergrad. (yrs 3-4)
Human Resources Management (HRM)
View this sample
Research paper
Cultural Intelligence Presentation
View this sample
Research paper
Communicable Disease
View this sample
Research paper
Mental health
View this sample
Essay (any type)
Personalized Glossary of Research and Assessment Terms
View this sample

It May Not Be Much, but It’s Honest Work!

Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.


Happy Clients


Words Written This Week


Ongoing Orders


Customer Satisfaction Rate

Process as Fine as Brewed Coffee

We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.

See How We Helped 9000+ Students Achieve Success


We Analyze Your Problem and Offer Customized Writing

We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.

  • Clear elicitation of your requirements.
  • Customized writing as per your needs.

We Mirror Your Guidelines to Deliver Quality Services

We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.

  • Proactive analysis of your writing.
  • Active communication to understand requirements.

We Handle Your Writing Tasks to Ensure Excellent Grades

We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.

  • Thorough research and analysis for every order.
  • Deliverance of reliable writing service to improve your grades.
Place an Order Start Chat Now