Human Biology and Human Evolution in Africa

Human Biology

Human Evolution in Africa

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The human evolution in Africa is a drawn out process of transformation by which natives’ originated from the apelike ancestors. Scientific study shows that behavioral traits and physical traits shared by the people came from the apelike ancestors over approximation of six million years ago. The earliest traits were the bipedalism is walking using the two rear limbs. Other human trait was the ability to make and use tools by using their own intelligence, and capacity for the language developed recently (Philip 2005). Human evolution has been used to show how humans originated and how they adapted to situations many years ago. It was argued that the human evolution stopped due to humans implications towards the environment. The adaptive responses were serious implications of infectious diseases.

The African continent is termed as the Cradle of human kind by many explorers, among the archeologists and historians (Wade 2007). Several evolution theories have been accredited to the evidence proof extracted from the African land. Following these historic discoveries, the species of human were facing major adaption issues to the environment. The climatic characteristics of the land had immense implications biologically and culturally (William 2011).

Evolutionary Process

Evolution in Africa occurred during the last ancestor of all the life, the lineage of modern apes and man is not yet known evidence. Emergence of the Homo sapiens was a distinct species of the great apes that led to the further study of the human evolution that involve scientific discipline including genetics, linguistics, primatologist, archaeology and embryology (Gould 2002). The Homo sapiens arose from African and evolved from different geographical areas. Plantaris muscle is evidence that shows human evolution, it was used by the animals to gripe and manipulate objects, for example, the apes could use their feet and hands to gripe. The primate evolutionary began the evolutionary study as the Paleocene, which came from the family of Hominidae (McHenry 2009). Later the chimpanzees and gorilla evolved and diverge to a genus homo, hence the evolution of the modern human from the common ancestor of species and the Hominini years ago in the Africa. During the evolution of the modern humans, humans adapts to a different situation like the illness where they were to think intelligently on ways to cure and prevent diseases.

It has been argued that the human evolution in Africa has accelerated due to civilization and development of agriculture. Modern human evolution evolved from the common ancestor many years ago in Africa and this lead to the different behavior of the modern humans, the beginning of the use of fire, the emergence of language and the making of the stone tools distinguished them from early humans (Joan 2003).

Adaptation to situations

The comparison between the modern humans and early humans is explained under certain aspectual details out and within Africa. The out of Africa migrated to a different part of the world and eventually replaced the existing hominid species in part of Europe and Asia. Emerging illness in the African continent has caused an impact on the human adaptation and survival. These diseases resulted from the environmental changes that are relevant to the situation that affect humans (Vogel 1997). The aim of adaptation was to change the way in order to suit the habitat and the environment, for instance, during cold days and winter, humans learn to shelter in their homes hence preventing diseases.

Early humans adapted to situations like the hunger by hunting of the wild animals and gathering of the wild fruits. They used tools such as sharp bones and sharp edge stones. Stone tools were first used by Homo habilis from eastern Africa to hunt energy meat product and gathered plants products. An Old wan tool was a basic human stone tool that was used in hunting in eastern Africa (Wood 2000). Early human were settling in places availed with water and other natural resources, which could help them to be resistant to certain illness. Bipedalism was an adaptive advantage in many times of low availability of food and sparse food resources distribution. Bipedal hominid would use less energy in movement from patch to patch of the food. The early man was able look for herbal medicines through the knowledge of the medicine men and women. The rainmakers were able to make rain during the situations like the drought and famine, this knowledge help the early man to adapt to any environment. The use of the tools was a sign of intelligence, as continue to expand the human brain.

Modern humans use technology to adapt to survival, and it has made existence to the environment easier to cope with in situations of diseases. Human scientists have invented ways of improving human health, for example, use of the tablets medicine to ameliorate a person’s immune system and the proper ways of using agricultural fertilizers either by avoiding the excessive use of it or by preferring the use of organic fertilizers, which will prevent the emission of nitrogenous gases hence causing climate change. This development of agriculture has changed the human pressure in many ways such as increasing of the population. However, it has made the transmission of the infectious diseases easier by expanding the role of the pathogens as the agent of the natural selection. The food that was and is still consumed by modern humans helps them to adapt to any the situation, whereby some foods are used to cure or prevent diseases.


In conclusion, humans evolution in African is equip with evidence that shows the way of adapting to the situation such as the different types of illness. The evolutionary process of human has hit the peak, and cultures of Africans have solidified the need of continual evolution. Traditions and culture have been responsible for the illness such as the increase in malaria. The proper use of the modern knowledge has show the comparison and contrasts of that of the early knowledge. It is evident that early humans in African used stones, tools and broken bones. This played a significant role in human life and this knowledge helped them to adapt to different situations. In wrapping up it is evident that there is a rapid evolution of human hence invention of new things.


Billion Years. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-674-03 . p. 265. ISBN 978-0-674-03175-3.

Gould, S.J. 2002. The structure of evolutionary theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,

Joan, B. 2003. How humans Evolved. New York: Norton.

McHenry, H.M. 2009. “Human Evolution.” Evolution: The First Four Billion Years. Cambridge, Massachusetts

Philip, L. 2005. Human evolution. The fossil evidence; university of california.

Vogel, Arno G. (1997). Human Genetics: Problems and Approaches Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.

Wade, N. 2007. Still Evolving, Human Genes Tell New Story” The New York Times.

William, A. 2011. Cultural Anthropology. 162

Wilson, D.E. Mammals Species of the world. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins university press.

Wood, B. 2000. Human evolution; “taxonomy and paleobiology” Journal of anatomy.

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